CNC is the abbreviation for computer-aided numerical control. In other words, the computer converts CAD-enabled planning into numbers. These values are typically the coordinates of a graphic. This data also plays a crucial role in controlling the movement of the milling machine. CNC controls refer to the computerized numerical devices that control the operations of the machines and their processes. In general terms, a CNC controller is the brain of the CNC system. A controller acts as a link between the computer system and the mechanical components of the CNC device. The term “controller” is a general term. However, it usually stands for the entire machine control system.
What is a CNC controller?
As mentioned earlier, the controller is the brain of the Manual Lathe Machine. In other words, the controller is responsible for the central task of interpreting the data. One of the main functions of the controller is to receive conditioned signals from a computer or an indexer. After the signals are received, it interprets these signals into a mechanical movement.
The interpretation of signals through mechanical movements is usually achieved by controlling the motor. A CNC control consists of three underlying mechanisms. This is the CNC software, which is a program composed of various instructions, a machine control unit, and a processing device. Now let’s take a closer look at each of the mechanisms of a CNC control.
What is CNC software?
It is important to note that both the computer and the controller operate with the help of software. Three types of software programs are typically required. These are the operating system software, the application software and the machine interface software.
What does a CNC manufacturing facility consist of?
The manufacturing facility transforms the initial workpiece into a finished product. In the majority of CNC systems, the manufacturing facility consists of a work station and a spindle. It also includes motors and axles that drive them.
How is a CNC machine controlled?
The machine control unit is also referred to as an MPU. The MPU of the CNC control executes the instructions and programs step by step. The MPU consists of I / O interfaces, memory and CPU.
How does a CNC controller work?
A CNC device is similar to any other device in industry. These machines belong to the category of electromechanical devices that control the tools of the machine tools. To be precise, the CNC machines consist of a computer into which the machine operator enters the program. Here is the list of steps that the CNC will use to perform its tasks.
Step 1: CAD
Computer-aided design plays an important role in the creation of 2D and 3D shapes. These specifications instruct the CNC controller to perform additional tasks.
Step 2: converting CAD to CNC code
This is where the CAM software comes in. It can convert the CAD file into CNC code so that the CNC control can read it easily.
Step 3: preparing the machine
When the machine operator has received a readable file, it is now time to prepare the machine. They also secure the workpieces so that the program in the controller can run properly.
Step 4: running the various processes
When all the codes are ready, the machine operator can enter the program into the controller to get the desired output. These codes guide the machine through the entire process.
Interestingly, the way CNC controls select commands is also highly dependent on the internal circuitry. The software or the circuit board can quickly configure the circuit diagrams of the constructions for each individual controller.
What are the different types of CNC controllers?
CNC machines differ greatly in terms of the protocols used for industrial communication. Language and operation are crucial when choosing a CNC milling machine. Based on diversity, the CNC market is led by lathes. The CNC control systems in a CNC router can be classified based on the types listed below.
How do the types of CNC controllers differ?
CNC movement types
The CNC movement type refers to the difference between the machine to be controlled. There are two types of control systems. The path control and the point-to-point control system.
Closed-loop controlled CNC systems
Control loop controlled CNC systems Loop Control CNC systems are based on the process of the control loop. The open-loop system and the closed-loop system are its sub-categories. On the other hand, the closed loop system refers to the system that collects feedback from the control system.
CNC axis control
The CNC axis control has five sub-categories. Let’s go over a brief overview of each of them.
- Two-axis control system in which the control only allows access to two axes.
- Two and a half axis control refers to a three axis machine. However, the movement is not 3D
- Three-axis control systems are machines that work in all three dimensions, that is, X, Y and Z.
- A four-axis controller is a machine that has three axes. It also has an additional axis with the additional rotation in the form of a B-axis
- Five-axis controllers have three primary axes. However, they have additional rotation in the Y and Z directions
We hope that you now have an overview of the basic principles of a CNC turning lathe. Each of these components work together, resulting in the desired motor movement. This also results in precise cutting of the material.
Read Also: Linksys RE6300 WPS Setup Failure